Abstract : Background: Dickeya solani is an emerging pathogen that causes soft rot and blackleg diseases in several crops including Solanum tuberosum, but little is known about its genomic diversity and evolution. Results: We combined Illumina and PacBio technologies to complete the genome sequence of D. solani strain 3337 that was used as a reference to compare with 19 other genomes (including that of the type strain IPO2222 T) which were generated by Illumina technology. This population genomic analysis highlighted an unexpected variability among D. solani isolates since it led to the characterization of two distinct subgroups within the D. solani species. This approach also revealed different types of variations such as scattered SNP/InDel variations as well as replacing and additive horizontal gene transfers (HGT). Infra-species (between the two D. solani subgroups) and inter-species (between D. solani and D. dianthicola) replacing HGTs were observed. Finally, this work pointed that genetic and functional variation in the motility trait could contribute to aggressiveness variability in D. solani. Conclusions: This work revealed that D. solani genomic variability may be caused by SNPs/InDels as well as replacing and additive HGT events, including plasmid acquisition; hence the D. solani genomes are more dynamic than that were previously proposed. This work alerts on precautions in molecular diagnosis of this emerging pathogen.